Patiala is the erstwhile princely state of Punjab, which is situated in the Malwa region. The city covers a total area of 365 s km. It is a judicious synthesis of a brilliant spectrum of Rajput, Mughal and Punjabi cultures and a fine blend of modernity and tradition. It was MaharajBhupinder Singh (1900-1930) who gave Patiala state a prominent place in the politicial map of India. Through Historians have tried to trace the origin of patiala to Rig Vedic literature, the town, as it stands today,was founded by Baba Ala Singh. It was founded with the construction of Qila Mubarak in 1763.
Administratively, Patiala district can be sub divided into 5 tehsils, 3 subs tehsils and 8 blocks. It forms a part of the Indo-Gangetic plain and consists of the three types of region -The Upland Plain, The Cho Infested Foothill Plain and the Flood plain of the Ghaggar River. There is a complex drainage system running through the district, consisting of canal and rivers. The river Ghaggar is the most important water channel of the distict.Apart from the natural drainage line, the district also has three important canals, the bharkra main line canal,the Nawana Branch and ghaggar link. These canals provide the much needed irrigation water to the district.